This is the movie project I have been working on for this quarter. It is about virtual worlds in distance education. The annotated bibliography is also attached.
The link is: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QAEfoW5RTWg
Baldi, P. & Lopes, C. (2012) The universal campus: an open virtual 3-D world infrastructure for research and education.
This study theorizes that Virtual Worlds are going to change the way in which students, learners and employees interact with each other in business, academia and play. The hypotheses states that positive collaboration results from the ability to meet and collaborate in a safe and fun environment. This study was not to select randomized participants; however, it was a study to compare the inner workings of several virtual worlds and the impact they can have on education in general. The results provided strengths and limitations of virtual worlds and embrace the virtual worlds as an emerging important and collaborative educational platform.
Ghanbarzadeh R, et al. (2014). A Decade of Research on the Use of Three-Dimensional Virtual Worlds in Health Care: A Systematic Literature Review.
The purpose of this study was to characterize different application areas of various 3DVWs in health and medical context and categorize them into meaningful categories. This study employs a systematic literature review on the application areas of 3DVWs in health care. Their research resulted in 62 papers from five top-ranking scientific databases published from 1990 to 2013 that describe the use of 3DVWs for health care specific purposes. The team’s hypotheses were whether virtual word applications could benefit healthcare workers by utilizing innovative ways to carry out death related activities in a medical environment. It should be noted here that the team researched medical studies carried out in Second Life. For example, Patel et al used Second Life for performance assessment of 63 surgeons in clinical scenarios. Another example used in Second Life was Schwab, et al. that explored the use of Second Life virtual simulation technology to administer mock oral examinations to emergency medicine residents.
Gregory, S. (2015). Virtual worlds and distance education: Cases and applications. Nova Science Publishers (eBooks)
The author noted a gap in the literature about the application of virtual worlds in education. The author states there is a lot “show and tell” and “how to guides” however, these do engage in theory and research to disseminate facts. The framework for this book is an analysis of discussions and recent theoretical empirical research focused on the successful use of virtual worlds in universities and colleges. The book presents exemplars that examine the pros and cons of virtual worlds in distance education.
Koles, B. & Nagy, P. Virtual worlds as digital workplaces: Conceptualizing the affordances of virtual worlds to expand the social and professional spheres in organization.
The authors’ study was to investigate ways in which the workplace could benefit from implementation of virtual worlds to expand social and professional spheres. The hypotheses were whether virtual worlds could reduce the prevalence of social hierarchies. This is quite common in F2F environments. In a virtual world, it is a safe environment and the avatars are on equal ground. Collaboration and communication can be completed synchronously with real-time interactions. Virtual worlds reduce bias for stereotyping and cultural and ethnic composites. The theoretical framework was conceptualizing potential organizational affordances. The authors discuss risks and disadvantages as well as the positive outcomes that can be achieved with virtual worlds. The authors conceded that more research is needed to study the psychological impact of virtual exposure that could also impact organizations. As with any distance education practices, what is the motivating factor?
Reinsmith-Jones, et al. Use of second life in social work education: Virtual world experiences and their effect on students.
This study evaluated students’ perspectives of the educational value of learning experiences in Second Life. The research question was whether virtual world learning could be useful in teaching social work values, skills, and knowledge as well as developing critical thinking skills and providing appropriate emotional experiences. The methodology was a mixed methodology in order to provide the most accurate evaluation; to survey students studying social work as contrasted to medical, corporate and other academia courses. Several universities were polled to determine if virtual worlds would be a part of their online curriculum. Seventy student surveys and journal entries provided excellent analytical data in that virtual worlds proved to be a worthwhile investment. Particularly in social work education, students need an activity whereby they could relate to others who are culturally and ethnically different from them. Online instruction does not provide for this type interaction to practice their skills. The virtual environment provides a safe atmosphere for building trust and rapport with other avatars without revealing personal information unless freely given. As with all of the previous literature journaled, the authors concluded that further development is required to iron out technical glitches that occur periodically.
Scullion, et al. (2014) Collaboration through simulation: Pilot implementation of an online 3-D environment.
The authors of this study’s research question was what would be the value in investigating participants’ success in utilizing virtual worlds to advance academia. The authors theorized online virtual worlds could enhance learning. The methodology was a random sampling of
survey of 720 university students, which was mostly a quantitative study, however, utilizing a few open-ended questions. The students were participants in the virtual world UNITE, which is similar to Second Life. The students were granted access to UNITE for a period of ten weeks, during which time students developed their own processes. This study was a mixed method design within a pragmatic worldview. Data analysis concluded that all students agreed that the use of virtual worlds should be included in distance education to create critical thinking and gain meaningful knowledge. All of the participants agreed that collaboration in the virtual world aided in building their self-confidence, which had been lacking in a F2F environment. The authors concluded there is a gap in the literature for evidence that virtual worlds in a totally positive contribution to distance learning.
Short, D. Designing a 3-D virtual HRD environment from a scholar-practitioner perspective
The study concentrated on developing training within organizations without interrupting the workforce with elements such as travel and missed time from the workplace that would provide adequate professional development. The hypotheses were how could research and theory inform practice to create a better solution for real-life organizational problems. The methodology was an experimental design involving employees of ABC company, constructed in Second Life. The company employed over 17,000 people in 20 countries. The learning platform was offered to all employees who wished to participate in the experiment. The overall conclusion was that the virtual environment was a positive learning environment, which met the criteria for implementing a virtual world-training program. The initial program was so successful that the results justified moving into more enterprise-friendly 3-D environment. This case study provides information for HRD practitioners on how to use 3D environments as a supplement to more traditional training tools. The author concluded that the study was informed by literature, thus yielding a beneficial result. Although this study was a positive study, there continues to be a gap in the literature and requires that the scholar-practitioner implement higher standards of rigor and get ahead of the current research.
The 3-D virtual world continues to be an emerging technology in that innovations have been discussed extensively as the potential delivery for online learning environments. There are few empirical studies that provide concrete evidence that a totally 3-D world would be possible for distance education. However, several studies have been conducted that provide ample discussion as to the success of implementing virtual worlds into online curriculum. Virtual worlds in distance learning are for all categories of learners from university students to medical, and corporate professional development. Virtual worlds offers many opportunities not offered in F2F environments, not to mention the financial savings to all concerned. The University of London reports that virtual worlds in education are approaching a “plateau of productivity” with useful applications demonstrating complex activities. However, to reduce Gartner’s plateau of productivity, of a sleeping technology, it is essential that innovators allow pedagogy to drive the technology, which as I predict we will see holographic 3-D virtual worlds become the new kid on the block. All in all, virtual worlds are an important tool to aid any distance learner. I had the opportunity to experience Second Life in my Master’s course in Technology and it proved to be a fun and exciting venue for group collaboration. No one was intimidated and no one felt left out as does occur with other types of group activities in Google hangouts, Skype collaboration and others. With Skype, for more than 3 persons, a fee is charged, whereas, in virtual worlds, any number of students can participate. Hopefully, this document and the movie will demonstrate some of the positive attributes of virtual worlds.
Baldi, P. & Lopes, C. (2012) The universal campus: an open virtual 3-D world infrastructure for research and education. retrieved from http://elearnmag.acm.org/archive.cfm?aid=2206888
Ghanbarzadeh R, Ghapanchi AH, Blumenstein M, Talaei-Khoei. A decade of research on the use of three-dimensional virtual worlds in health care: A systematic literature review. J Med Internet Res 2014; 16(2): e47. retrieved from http://www.jmir.org/2014/2/e47 doi 10.2196/jmir.3097
Koles, B. & Nagy, P. Virtual worlds as digital workplaces: Conceptualizing the affordances of virtual worlds to expand the social and professional spheres in organization. Organizational Psychology Review, May 2014; v. 4, (2): pp. 175-195. October 22, 2013. retrieved from http://online.sagepub.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/search/results doi:
Reinsmith-Jones, et al. Use of second life in social work education: Virtual world experiences
and their effect on students. Journal of Social Work Education
V 51: 90–108, 2015 retreived from http://content.ebscohost.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/ContentServer.asp?T=P&P=
fgeyx44Dt6fIA. doi. 10.1080/10437797.2015.977167
Scullion, D., Livingstone, D. & Stansfiield, M. Collaboration through simulation: Pilot implementation of an online 3-D environment. Simulation & Gaming 2014 V 45 (3) 394-
Sage Publications. retrieved from http://sag.sagepub.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/content/45/3/394.full.pdf+html. doi: 10.1177/1046878114530814
Short, D. Designing a 3-D virtual HRD environment from a scholar-practitioner perspective. August 2013; v 15, ( 3): pp. 270–283 May 22, 2013. Advances in Developing
Developing Human Resources Sage Publications. retrieved from http://adh.sagepub.com.ezp.waldenulibrary.org/content/15/3/270.full.pdf+html.